Protecting against Witches and Epidemics
Primitive practice 607 "…all the young fellows of the village assemble after sunset on some height, especially at a crossroad, and crack whips…in unison with all their strength…drives away the witches; for so far as the sound of the whips is heard, these maleficent beings can do no harm." Frazer, The New Golden Bough.
Primitive practice 607 "…the village youth go out to crossroads and there beat the ground with boards, no doubt for the purpose of thrashing the witches who are commonly supposed to assemble at such spots." Frazer, The New Golden Bough.
Primitive practice 607 …troops of children go from house to house on Walpurgis Evening, making a great clatter with tin cans and kettles, while they scream, 'Witch, go out, your house is burning.' ” Frazer, The New Golden Bough.
Primitive practice 608 "…people burn pine-resin all night long between Christmas and the New Year in order that the pungent smoke may drive witches and evil spirits far away from house and homestead, and on Christmas Eve and New Year’s Eve they fire shots over fields and meadows, into shrubs and trees, and wrap straw around the fruit trees to prevent the spirits from doing them harm." Frazer, The New Golden Bough.
Primitive practice 610 "Russian villagers seek to protect themselves against epidemics…by drawing a furrow with a plough right round the village." Frazer, The New Golden Bough.